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Diabetic Foot Care

An Overview

 

If you have diabetes, the extra amount of glucose in your blood can cause severe complications and foot disease. Typically, diabetes can cause two problems. It may include diabetic neuropathy and peripheral vascular ailment.

 

Uncontrolled diabetes can damage your nerve, and damaged nerves in your feet and legs, you may not feel cold, heat, or pain there. The lack of feeling is called diabetic neuropathy. If you do not feel sore or cut in the feet, the cut feels worse and becomes infected. The muscles of your foot may not work as the nerves in the muscles make get damaged.

Signs and Symptoms

If you have diabetes, you may contact your doctor if you have the following symptoms:
● Changes in the skin colour
● Changes in the skin temperature
● Swelling in the ankle or foot
● Pain in the leg
● Open sores on the foot that is slow to heal

Prevention

If you are not able to perform your regular task yourself, you need to cleanse your feet daily and apply moisturiser. It will prevent the formation of cracks. A diabetic sock or thick padded sock is put to wear inside the shoes that offer good support o custom shoes. Prevention of diabetic feet also includes quitting smoking and maintaining light glucose control. You need to keep track of your blood pressure, and weight to get rid of a diabetic foot. Patients need to understand the value of cooperating with the health care team to maintain the health of the foot.

Risk Factors

Common risk factors for the development of Diabetes foot may include the following
● Peripheral vascular disease
● Poor glycemic control .
● Diabetic neuropathy
● Amputation and foot ulceration
As of now, the most common risk factors are peripheral vascular disease and neuropathy. It can affect the automatic, motor, and sensory components of the nervous system. Compromised innervation of the muscle in the foot will cause extension of the affected foot that creates anatomic abnormality. It will cause bony prominences and pressure points. Automatic dysfunction will lead to diminished sweating and which results in dry skin and develop cracks. Peripheral vascular disease in a diabetic patient that affects the aortic segment and femoral artery.

Complications that can arise

A cut or wound will lead to infection. The blood vessel and nerves will get damaged. You may also suffer from immune disorders that make them more likely. Most infections take place in the wound that got treated with antibiotics previously.

Surgical Treatments

Surgical treatment is important because it is used to control the infection, preserve the injured tissue and remove the dead tissue as well.

Debridement

Debridement can be of two types minor and major. Under this method, the infected and dead tissues are removed from the ulcer with the help of special tools like scissors or scalpels. The surgeon uses a scalpel or scissors to make the foot ulcer bacteria-free. They also provide an accurate environment for the ulcer to heal properly.

Amputation

Amputation is mainly suggested only during life-threatening sepsis. The main aim of amputation is to control infections and retain the foot’s function.

Revascularisation

There is a reduced supply of blood in the legs of diabetic patients, and because of this, the healing process of ulcers becomes slow. Angioplasty or Arterial reconstruction can improve the blood flow and increase the rate of healing.

Bone Curettage

Diabetic patients often develop osteomyelitis that might require bone curettage. Surgery is important in this condition so as to remove the infected or dead bone